Monday, 18 March 2013

The history of lipstick

Hello beauties!

Hope your weekend was simply amazing! Here's a shout out to Liani and Franco, and saying wish WE were THERE with you. Rome looks awesome!! Have a blast over there!

So last week I had a conversation with Shants, and we talked about lipstick. How many people out there still believe lipstick is made from whale blubber? Hand up, please.

This isn't true. And that's why, I'm talking lipstick today. We're going to put this whale thing to rest once and for all. :)

The earliest records of lip stains come from as far back as Mesopotamia, 300 BC. It's said that these ladies used henna dyes, red clay and iron oxides to tint their lips, and they also crushed gemstones and applied that to their lips for some shimma.

Then, as always, the Egyptians jumped on the band wagon. These people are (in my opinion anyway) the creators of cosmetics as we know it. They used iodine, fucus-algin and bromine to colour their lips and apparently Cleopatra was famous for crushing carmine beetles and ants, and then mixing their dust into beeswax to tint her lips. Never said it would be pretty! (:

The first solid lipstic came from Arab scientist Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, who made a perfumed, wax based lip stain in around 900 BC.

Of course, medieval Europeans banned the use of lipstick, since it was seen as 'from the devil'.

In 16th Century England, lip colours gained some interest and popularity. If you want something to be a success, have the popular personalities of an era promote it (like singers and actors today) and Bob's your uncle. In those days it was the young queen Elizabeth I, who was famous for bright red lips and a pale face. Her lipstick was made from crushed flower petals and, once again, beeswax.

A couple of hundred years after that, a law was passed in England, banning women from wearing cosmetics before they were married. This was in 1770, and the reasoning was that only prostitutes and actresses wore lipstick and other cosmetics. :)

In the late 19th century, lipstick was being manufactured in Paris for the first time. Beeswax, deer tallow and castor oil were used to create the product in this time and finally, by the 1920's, lipstick was acceptable in England as well.

In America, it was different, however. During the 19th century, carmine dye was used to colour lipstick (scales and eggs of specific beetles. Yummy.). It came in powder form and was applied with a brush. During this time, it was pretty expensive, and it looked unnatural, so it wasn't popular for everyday wear. By the time they started adding beeswax to the carmine in around 1890, the look started to become more natural and by 1912, it was deemed appropriate to wear lipstick every day.

Then, in around 1915, Elizabeth Arden and Estee Lauder began to sell lipstick in their salons. In this time, they made lipstick out of petroleum and (still) castor oil. We all know the flappers of the 1920's and their deep, dark red, vampy lipsticks. Lipstick was appropriate in this time when out to lunch, strangely enough, but not to dinner.

In the 1930's Elizabeth Arden introduced new shades and women were encouraged to try these out. It was unacceptable for teenagers to wear lipstick, as it was seen as too sexual and rebellious. By the 40's surveys showed that guys preferred teenagers who were less made up and teenagers were warned that they would seem 'loose' if they wore rouges and lipsticks. It was still, after ll this time, due to the association with cosmetics and prostitution.

In the 40's the war broke out and the ingredients that were used to make lipsticks were rare, and with that, less lipstick was made (as with all cosmetics, really). When something is rare, it gains popularity, as it goes with these things!! :D Of course, this created a new niche market, and the first long lasting, smear proof lipstick was invented in the late 1940's by Hazel Bishop, and lipstick sales thrived by then end of the 1950's.

In the 60's, lipstick became matte. During this era, soft pinks and neutrals were in, and women who didn't wear lipstick were suspected of (get this) lesbianism or mental illness. Ha! Because in the 60's, lipstick was seen as a way to express one's femininity.

In the 70's, weird colours like blue, green and silvers were introduced by MAC and by the end of the decade, black was the way to go. From nudes to wacky colours? Yup. But this was the time of the birth of the punk and goth sub-cultures, which was what made these colours popular. The 80's brought us mood changing lip colours. That's what I said! The colour would change due to the Ph balance in the skin. This was even found in blush and lip gloss. :)

The 1990's was the Friends era, and the colours the female Friends wore consisted mainly of browns and were semi-matte. As I said earlier, if you want to make something popular, have the heroes of the era wear and promote it, and the brown lip was suddenly in. But after some time, pearly lip colours came in, and semi-matte was forgotten.

Recently, bright lip colours have made a comeback. Fuchsia pinks, oranges and bright reds are big right now and mattes, shimmers and pearls are all wearable. Nude lips are always a fashion winner. Nowadays, lip colours are paired to compliment the look on the whole and makeup isn't centred around the lips all the time anymore. We have more freedom these days!

And for those of you who still worry about what lipstick is made of, I copy and pasted this from Wikipedia.

"Lipstick contains wax, oils, antioxidants and emollients.[30] Wax provides the structure to the solid lipstick. Lipsticks may be made from several waxes such as beeswax, ozokerite and candelilla wax. The high melting Carnauba wax is a key ingredient in terms of strengthening the lipstick. Various oils and fats are also used in lipsticks, such as olive oil, mineral oil, cocoa butter, lanolin, and petrolatum. More than 50% of lipsticks made in the United States contain pig fat or castor oil, which gives them a shiny appearance.

Lipsticks get their colors from a variety of pigments and lake dyes including, but not limited to bromo acid, D&C Red No. 21, Calcium Lake such as D&C Red 7 and D&C Red 34, and D&C Orange No. 17. Pink lipsticks are made by mixing colourless titanium dioxide and red shades. There are organic and inorganic pigments.

Matte lipsticks contain more filling agents like silica but do not have many emollients. Creme lipsticks contain more waxes than oils. Sheer and long lasting lipstick contain a lot of oil, while long lasting lipsticks also contain silicone oil, which seals the colors to the wearer's lips. Glossy lipstick contain more oil to give a shiny finish to the lips. Shimmery lipstick may contain mica, silica, fish scales, and synthetic pearl particles to give them a glittery or shimmering shine.[3]

Lipstick is made from grinding and heating ingredients. Then heated waxes are added to the mix for texture. Oils and lanolin are added for specific formula requirements. Afterwards, the hot liquid is poured onto a metal mold. The mixture is chilled and kept cool so that the lipsticks harden. Once they have hardened, they are heated in flame for half a second to create a shiny finish and to remove imperfections"

Sources :

Hope you enjoyed this post and found it informative! We'll go on with the history of series next time with foundation. :)

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Stay beautiful and be kind to animals,